Highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV isolates have been discovered within both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 genotypes and investigated in recent years especially for their ability to cause extremely severe disease in conventional pig herds. The exacerbation of general and respiratory clinical signs has been attributed not only to an efficient replication (virulence) but also to the ability to dysregulate viral recognition and induce mechanisms of immune evasion or immune enhancement of humoral and cellular anti-viral responses differently from non-HP PRRSV isolates in terms of intensity and temporal onset. Thus, the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HP PRRSV is a major concern for the study of virus biology and development of efficacious vaccines. The present study aims at addressing the modulation of relevant immune cell subsets by flow cytometry in the blood of 4- week-old pigs experimentally infected with the recently discovered PR40/2014 HP PRRSV-1.1 strain phenotypically characterized in Canelli et al. (2017) compared to pigs infected with a non-HP PRRSV isolate (PR11/ 2014) and uninfected controls. PR40 infected animals showed an early and marked reduction of pro-inflammatory CD172α+ CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+ monocytes and TCRγδ+CD8α+/CD8α- lymphocytes when pigs were most infected, possibly due to a recruitment sustaining an acute inflammatory response in target tissues. The prolonged increased CD3+CD16+ NKT cell levels may sustain peripheral inflammation and/ or the anti-viral response. The late reduction (potential depletion) of γ/δ T lymphocytes and CD3+CD4+CD8α- naïve Th lymphocytes paralleled with the delayed increase of CD3+CD4+CD8α+ memory and CD3+CD4- CD8α/β+cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In addition, PR40 infection showed an early depletion of activated CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes and Tregs together with an intense and lasting depletion of CD21+ B lymphocytes. Overall, these features demonstrate that the more severe clinical signs observed upon infection with the HP PR40 strain are sustained by remarkable changes in the peripheral blood distribution of immune cells and provide further insights into the immune regulation/immunopathogenesis induced by PRRSV-1 subtype 1 European isolates.

A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) strongly modulates cellular innate and adaptive immune subsets upon experimental infection / Ferrari, Luca; Canelli, Elena; De Angelis, Elena; Catella, Alessia; Ferrarini, Giulia; Ogno, Giulia; Bonati, Luca; Nardini, Roberto; Borghetti, Paolo; Martelli, Paolo. - In: VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0378-1135. - 216(2018), pp. 85-92. [10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.001]

A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) strongly modulates cellular innate and adaptive immune subsets upon experimental infection

LUCA FERRARI;ELENA CANELLI;ELENA DE ANGELIS;ALESSIA CATELLA;GIULIA FERRARINI;GIULIA OGNO;LUCA BONATI;PAOLO BORGHETTI
;
PAOLO MARTELLI
2018

Abstract

Highly pathogenic (HP) PRRSV isolates have been discovered within both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 genotypes and investigated in recent years especially for their ability to cause extremely severe disease in conventional pig herds. The exacerbation of general and respiratory clinical signs has been attributed not only to an efficient replication (virulence) but also to the ability to dysregulate viral recognition and induce mechanisms of immune evasion or immune enhancement of humoral and cellular anti-viral responses differently from non-HP PRRSV isolates in terms of intensity and temporal onset. Thus, the understanding of the immunopathogenesis of HP PRRSV is a major concern for the study of virus biology and development of efficacious vaccines. The present study aims at addressing the modulation of relevant immune cell subsets by flow cytometry in the blood of 4- week-old pigs experimentally infected with the recently discovered PR40/2014 HP PRRSV-1.1 strain phenotypically characterized in Canelli et al. (2017) compared to pigs infected with a non-HP PRRSV isolate (PR11/ 2014) and uninfected controls. PR40 infected animals showed an early and marked reduction of pro-inflammatory CD172α+ CD14+CD16+ and CD14+CD163+ monocytes and TCRγδ+CD8α+/CD8α- lymphocytes when pigs were most infected, possibly due to a recruitment sustaining an acute inflammatory response in target tissues. The prolonged increased CD3+CD16+ NKT cell levels may sustain peripheral inflammation and/ or the anti-viral response. The late reduction (potential depletion) of γ/δ T lymphocytes and CD3+CD4+CD8α- naïve Th lymphocytes paralleled with the delayed increase of CD3+CD4+CD8α+ memory and CD3+CD4- CD8α/β+cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In addition, PR40 infection showed an early depletion of activated CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes and Tregs together with an intense and lasting depletion of CD21+ B lymphocytes. Overall, these features demonstrate that the more severe clinical signs observed upon infection with the HP PR40 strain are sustained by remarkable changes in the peripheral blood distribution of immune cells and provide further insights into the immune regulation/immunopathogenesis induced by PRRSV-1 subtype 1 European isolates.
A highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus type 1 (PRRSV-1) strongly modulates cellular innate and adaptive immune subsets upon experimental infection / Ferrari, Luca; Canelli, Elena; De Angelis, Elena; Catella, Alessia; Ferrarini, Giulia; Ogno, Giulia; Bonati, Luca; Nardini, Roberto; Borghetti, Paolo; Martelli, Paolo. - In: VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGY. - ISSN 0378-1135. - 216(2018), pp. 85-92. [10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.02.001]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2840067
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