Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressant agent approved for the treatment of dry eye disease and used off-label for other ocular pathologies. Its formulation and ocular bioavailability present a real challenge due to the large molecular weight (1.2 kDa), high lipophilicity, and low water solubility. The aim of the work was to develop an aqueous micellar formulation for an efficient cyclosporine delivery to the ocular tissues, using a water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E (TPGS: d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) and poloxamer 407 (Pluronic ®F127) as excipients. The mixed micelles were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, rheology, and stability upon dilution and freeze-drying. Additionally, the enzymatic-triggered release of Vitamin E and Vitamin E succinate from TPGS was investigated in vitro in the presence of esterase. Compared to the commercially available ophthalmic formulation, the poloxamer 407:TPGS 1:1 molar ratio micellar formulation significantly improved cyclosporine solubility, which increased proportionally to surfactant concentration reaching 0.4% (w/v) for 20 mM surfactant total concentration. Cyclosporine-loaded mixed micelles efficiently retained the drug once diluted in simulated lachrymal fluid and, in the presence of a 20 mM surfactant concentration, were stable upon freeze-drying. The drug-loaded mixed micelles were applied ex vivo on porcine cornea and compared to Ikervis®. Drug accumulation in the cornea resulted proportional to drug concentration (6.4 ± 1.9, 17.6 ± 5.4, and 26.9 ± 7.4 μgdrug/gcornea, after 3 h for 1, 2.5, and 4 mg/mL cyclosporine concentration respectively). The formulation containing cyclosporine 4 mg/mL (20 mM surfactant) was also evaluated on the sclera, with a view to targeting the posterior segment. The results demonstrated the capability of mixed micelles to diffuse into the sclera and sustain cyclosporine delivery (28 ± 7, 38 ± 10, 57 ± 9, 145 ± 27 μg/cm2cyclosporine accumulated after 3, 6, 24, and 48 h respectively). Reservoir effect experiments demonstrated that the drug accumulated in the sclera can be slowly released into the underlying tissues. Finally, all the formulations developed in this work successfully passed the HET-CAM assay for the evaluation of ocular irritability.

Poloxamer 407/TPGS Mixed Micelles as Promising Carriers for Cyclosporine Ocular Delivery / Grimaudo, Maria A.; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Nicoli, Sara. - In: MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 1543-8384. - 15:2(2018), pp. 571-584. [10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00939]

Poloxamer 407/TPGS Mixed Micelles as Promising Carriers for Cyclosporine Ocular Delivery

Grimaudo, Maria A.;Pescina, Silvia;Padula, Cristina;Santi, Patrizia;Nicoli, Sara
2018

Abstract

Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressant agent approved for the treatment of dry eye disease and used off-label for other ocular pathologies. Its formulation and ocular bioavailability present a real challenge due to the large molecular weight (1.2 kDa), high lipophilicity, and low water solubility. The aim of the work was to develop an aqueous micellar formulation for an efficient cyclosporine delivery to the ocular tissues, using a water-soluble derivative of Vitamin E (TPGS: d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) and poloxamer 407 (Pluronic ®F127) as excipients. The mixed micelles were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, rheology, and stability upon dilution and freeze-drying. Additionally, the enzymatic-triggered release of Vitamin E and Vitamin E succinate from TPGS was investigated in vitro in the presence of esterase. Compared to the commercially available ophthalmic formulation, the poloxamer 407:TPGS 1:1 molar ratio micellar formulation significantly improved cyclosporine solubility, which increased proportionally to surfactant concentration reaching 0.4% (w/v) for 20 mM surfactant total concentration. Cyclosporine-loaded mixed micelles efficiently retained the drug once diluted in simulated lachrymal fluid and, in the presence of a 20 mM surfactant concentration, were stable upon freeze-drying. The drug-loaded mixed micelles were applied ex vivo on porcine cornea and compared to Ikervis®. Drug accumulation in the cornea resulted proportional to drug concentration (6.4 ± 1.9, 17.6 ± 5.4, and 26.9 ± 7.4 μgdrug/gcornea, after 3 h for 1, 2.5, and 4 mg/mL cyclosporine concentration respectively). The formulation containing cyclosporine 4 mg/mL (20 mM surfactant) was also evaluated on the sclera, with a view to targeting the posterior segment. The results demonstrated the capability of mixed micelles to diffuse into the sclera and sustain cyclosporine delivery (28 ± 7, 38 ± 10, 57 ± 9, 145 ± 27 μg/cm2cyclosporine accumulated after 3, 6, 24, and 48 h respectively). Reservoir effect experiments demonstrated that the drug accumulated in the sclera can be slowly released into the underlying tissues. Finally, all the formulations developed in this work successfully passed the HET-CAM assay for the evaluation of ocular irritability.
Poloxamer 407/TPGS Mixed Micelles as Promising Carriers for Cyclosporine Ocular Delivery / Grimaudo, Maria A.; Pescina, Silvia; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Nicoli, Sara. - In: MOLECULAR PHARMACEUTICS. - ISSN 1543-8384. - 15:2(2018), pp. 571-584. [10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00939]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2838634
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