Internally transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA profiling is a novel tool for detailed analysis of microbial populations at low taxonomic ranks. Here we exploited this approach to explore species-level biogeography of the Bifidobacterium genus across 291 adult mammals. These include humans and 13 other primates, domesticated animals, such as dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, horses and pigs, and 46 additional species. The collected profiles revealed the presence of 89 putative novel bifidobacterial taxa in addition to 45 previously described species. Remarkably, in contrast to what is currently known for many gut commensals, we did not observe host-specialization among bifidobacterial species but rather their widespread distribution across mammals. Moreover, ITS rRNA profiling of wild relatives of domesticated dogs, rabbits and pigs clearly indicates that domestication and close contact with humans have impacted on the composition of the fecal bifidobacterial population. These data were complemented by analysis of bifidobacterial communities in milk of eight mammalian families, showing that bifidobacteria represent prototypical early gut microbiota members which are inherited by newborns from their lactating mother. Thus this study highlights the role of bifidobacteria as pioneering gut colonizers of a wide range of mammals.
Unveiling bifidobacterial biogeography across the mammalian branch of the tree of life / Milani, Christian; Mangifesta, Marta; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele A.; James, Kieran; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Ferrario, Chiara; Ossiprandi, Maria C.; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco. - In: THE ISME JOURNAL. - ISSN 1751-7362. - 11:12(2017), pp. 2834-2847. [10.1038/ismej.2017.138]
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo su rivista|