We tested for gender-specific interactions between smoking and genetic polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) intron 13 (G or A allele), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) EcoRV (Yor N allele), and dopamine D2 recepor (DRD2) Taq1B (B1 or B2 allele) in a case-control study of 186 incident idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases and 296 age- and gender-matched controls. The odds ratios (ORs) for PD risk for ever smokers versus never smokers were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.13-0.58) for men of genotype G, and 1.26 (0.60-2.63) for men of genotype A (interaction chi2 = 8.14, P = 0.004). In contrast, for women, the OR for ever smokers versus never smokers were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.25-1.34) and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.18-2.21) for women of genotype GG/GA and AA, respectively (interaction chi2 = 0.001, P = 0.975). No interactions were detected between smoking and either MAO-A EcoRV or DRD2 Taq1B genotypes. These results suggest that a strong gender difference exists with respect to the modifying effect of MAO-B genotype on the smoking association with PD.
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