Activation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors leads to several biochemical events including an increased turnover of phosphoinositides. In this study we have investigated whether repeated administration of the organophosphorus insecticide disulfoton, known to cause the development of tolerance to this compound, would affect phosphoinositide metabolism in rat brain. Basal and carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism were measured in cerebral cortex slices, by measuring the accumulation of inositol phosphates (InsPs) in the presence of lithium. In control animals carbachol caused a 600% increase in InsPs accumulation with an EC50 of 100 microM. Maximal effect occurred with a LiCl concentration of 7.5 mM and required the presence of calcium. Administration of disulfoton for 10 days (2 mg/kg/day by gavage), decreased the number of muscarinic receptors in cortex from 1.1 to 0.7 pmol/mg of protein without changing the affinity of the receptors (both measured by binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate). Acetylcholinesterase was inhibited by 85%. Basal InsPs accumulation was unchanged in disulfoton-treated rats, whereas carbachol-stimulated InsPs accumulation decreased by 18%. No changes of norepinephrine-stimulated InsPs formation and of alpha-1 adrenoceptors were present in cortices from disulfoton-treated rats. Recovery of muscarinic receptor binding and carbachol-stimulated InsPs accumulation occurred at a similar rate and was completed 2 to 3 weeks after the end of the treatment, whereas acetylcholinesterase activity was still 38% inhibited 3 weeks later. These results support the hypothesis that a functional adaptation of muscarinic receptors is involved in the development of tolerance to organophosphates.
Carbachol- and norepinephrine-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in rat brain: effect of chronic cholinesterase inhibition / Costa, L. G; Kaylor, G; Murphy, S. D.. - In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS. - ISSN 0022-3565. - 239:1(1986), p. 32-7.
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