Introduction: Nowadays, liposuction is the most frequently performed aesthetic surgery procedure in Western Countries. This technique has had rapid development since the 1970s, when it was experimented for the first time by A. and G. Fischer. It is currently widely used in clinical practice for many different situations in aesthetic, reconstructive and functional fields. Materials and methods: This review aims to describe the historical evolution of liposuction by analyzing the transformation of the method in function of the introduction of innovative ideas or instruments. We have also focused on reporting the major clinical applications of this surgical technique, applicable to almost the entire body surface. We finally analyzed the complications, both major and minor, associated with this surgical technique. Results: Liposuction is mainly used to correct deep and superficial fat accumulations and remodel the body contour. It has become an essential complementary technique to enhance the aesthetic result of many other aesthetic procedures such as reduction mammoplasty, abdominoplasty, brachioplasty, thigh lift and post bariatric body contouring. However, it can be largely used for the treatment of innumerable pathologies in reconstructive surgery such as lipomas, lipedema, lipodystrophies, pneudogynecomastia and gynecomastia, macromastia e gigantomastia, lymphedema and many others. The complication rate is very low, especially when compared with conventional excisional surgery and the major, complications are generally associated with improper performance of the technique and poor patient management before and after surgery. Conclusion: Liposuction is a safe, simple and effective method of body contouring. It has enormous potential for its application in ablative and reconstructive surgery, far from the most common aesthetic processes with a very low complication rate.
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