The discovery of an exclusive local production of IgE antibodies dates back to the 1970s, but only recently the pathophysiology of such phenomenon was deeply investigated, leading to the concept of local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Currently, LAR is defined by the occurrence, in patients with symptoms clearly suggesting allergic rhinitis but with negative results to common allergy testing, of allergen specific IgE in the nasal mucosa. Most studies investigating LAR were based on the development of rhinitis symptoms following nasal provocation test (NPT) with the suspected allergens, but such test may be performed by a number of options, none of them being as yet acknowledged and recommended in consensus document. On the other hand, also the mere detection of IgE in the nasal mucosa indicates, as for IgE measurement in blood or other tissues, allergic sensitization but cannot give the certainty of clinical allergy. Therefore, the combination of IgE detection in nasal mucosa and a positive result of NPT should be used to diagnose LAR. Recent data on the use for in vitro testing of molecular allergy diagnostics in place of whole allergen extracts suggest that this method could improve the sensitivity and specificity of laboratory tests, and an appraisal of the basophil activation test as a third level technique, to be implemented when the results of local IgE testing and NPT are uncertain, is currently ongoing.
Local allergic rhinitis: Evolution of concepts / Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Fuiano, Nicola; Martignago, Irene; Gritti, Bruna L.; Ridolo, Erminia. - In: CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL ALLERGY. - ISSN 2045-7022. - 7:1(2017), p. 38. [10.1186/s13601-017-0174-7]
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