This work deals with the extension of a smeared crack constitutive model for reinforced concrete elements subjected to a general biaxial stress state, in order to include the effects of shrinkage occurring before the application of any external load. Indeed, shrinkage markedly influences the structural behavior even under short-term loading, in terms of both member deformations and cracking load. A new set of equilibrium and compatibility equations is formulated to include concrete initial prestrains, which are determined on the basis of the moisture field within the structural element. The numerical strategy is validated through comparisons with data from the literature.
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