In this paper we report on the single stage deposition of CuInxGa1−xSe2 (CIGS)-based bifacial solar cells on glass coated with Fluorine-doped Tin Oxide (FTO) or Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) by single-stage low-temperature (250 °C) pulsed electron deposition (LTPED). We show that the mechanism of Sodium incorporation during the low-temperature deposition of CIGS on both FTO and ITO leads to the formation of a stable n+/p+ ohmic tunnel junction and photovoltaic efficiencies exceeding 14% can be obtained without any intentional bandgap grading of CIGS. The significant degradation of the cell fill factor with decreasing CIGS thickness is found to be related to the presence of craters left behind by micro-fragments of CIGS target, which are weakly incorporated in the film during the LTPED growth and removed during the subsequent process steps. Evidence is also presented that the low-temperature deposition of CIGS on ITO leads to the formation of a Ga-rich CIGS layer at the interface and to an unintentional compositional grading propagating towards the active region of the solar cells. The defects associated with this grading may be responsible for the loss in FF and Voc with respect to the cells deposited on FTO and Mo back contacts.
Bifacial CIGS solar cells grown by Low Temperature Pulsed Electron Deposition / M, Mazzer; Rampino, Stefano; Spaggiari, Giulia; Annoni, Filippo; Bersani, Danilo; Bissoli, Francesco; Bronzoni, Matteo; Calicchio, Marco; Gombia, Enos; Kingma, Aldo; Pattini, Francesco; Gilioli, E.. - In: SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS. - ISSN 0927-0248. - 166(2017), pp. 247-253. [10.1016/j.solmat.2016.10.048]
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