In this paper, we focus on a particular type of opportunistic ad-hoc networks, namely Pedestrian Ad-hoc NETworks (PANETs). In PANETs, nodes are densely distributed and each node may transmit information to all other nodes in the network via multi-hop broadcasting. Even though flooding is the simplest technique to broadcast information with multi-hop communications, it can be very inefficient because of redundant transmissions which may induce collisions. This problem is known, in the literature, as the "broadcast storm problem." In this work, we present a novel probabilistic forwarding technique, denoted as Distance-based Silencing IF (DiSIF), which is derived from the probabilistic broadcasting protocol Irresponsible Forwarding (IF) and one of its extensions, denotes Silencing IF (SIF). The performance of the DiSIF protocol is analyzed and compared with those of other existing protocols, investigating the impact of fundamental network parameters. Lower bounds (exact and approximate) on the average number of hops, expedient to evaluate the propagation efficiency of DiSIF, are also derived. Finally, under the assumption that each node (e.g., a smartphone) relies on Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate its position, the robustness of DiSIF against a GPS positioning error is investigated.
DiSIF: A distance-based silencing technique for multi-hop broadcast communications in pedestrian ad-hoc networks / Gorrieri, Andrea; Ferrari, Gianluigi. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MOBILE COMPUTING. - ISSN 1536-1233. - 15:11(2016), pp. 2706-2718. [10.1109/TMC.2015.2508804]
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