A substantial proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not reach glycemic targets, despite treatment with oral anti-diabetic drugs and basal insulin therapy. Several options exist for treatment intensification beyond basal insulin, and the treatment paradigm is complex. In this review, the options for treatment intensification will be explored, focusing on drug classes that act via the incretin system and paying particular attention to the short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists exenatide and lixisenatide. Current treatment guidelines will be summarized and discussed.
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