Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant.

Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme / Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 6:(2016), p. 25165. [10.1038/srep25165]

Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme

LEVATI, Elisabetta;SARTINI, SARA;BOLCHI, Angelo;OTTONELLO, Simone;MONTANINI, Barbara
2016

Abstract

Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant.
Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme / Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 6:(2016), p. 25165. [10.1038/srep25165]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2808705
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