Evidence demonstrating that human exposure to various organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) is associated with neurobehavioral deficits in children continues to emerge. The present study focused on diazinon (DZ) and its active oxygen metabolite, diazoxon (DZO), and explored their ability to impair neurite outgrowth in rat primary hippocampal neurons as a mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity. Both DZ and DZO (0.5-10. μM) significantly inhibited neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons, at concentrations devoid of any cyototoxicity. These effects appeared to be mediated by oxidative stress, as they were prevented by antioxidants (melatonin, N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone, and glutathione ethyl ester). Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was observed at concentrations below those required to inhibit the catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase. The presence of astrocytes in the culture was able to provide protection against inhibition of neurite outgrowth by DZ and DZO. Astrocytes increased neuronal glutathione (GSH) in neurons, to levels comparable to those of GSH ethyl ester. Astrocytes depleted of GSH by l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine no longer conferred protection against DZ- and DZO-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth. The findings indicate that DZ and DZO inhibit neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neurons by mechanisms involving oxidative stress, and that these effects can be modulated by astrocytes and astrocyte-derived GSH. Oxidative stress from other chemical exposures, as well as genetic abnormalities that result in deficiencies in GSH synthesis and regulation, may render individuals more susceptible to these developmental neurotoxic effects of OPs. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Astrocytes protect against diazinon- and diazoxon-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth by regulating neuronal glutathione / Pizzurro, Daniella M.; Dao, Khoi; Costa, Lucio G.. - In: TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 0300-483X. - 319:1(2014), pp. 59-68. [10.1016/j.tox.2014.01.010]
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