Objectives: Peritoneal carcinomatosis involves the dissemination of intra-abdominal tumor tissue often associated with gynecological malignancies. The objective of this study was to describe the transvaginal sonographic appearance of this condition. Methods: The data of 60 patients with surgically and histologically proven peritoneal carcinomatosis were analyzed. Transvaginal sonograms performed within 7 days of admission to the operating theater were reevaluated in order to identify the sonographic features associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Results: Carcinomatosis was revealed in 53/60 cases (88%) by the presence of hypoechoic nodules attached to the peritoneum and visible on transvaginal sonography (TVS). The pouch of Douglas was the site most frequently involved. Power Doppler sonography showed the presence of blood vessels in 48 (91%) of these metastases. Ascites was found in 50 (83%) women. An adnexal mass suggestive of being the primary tumor was present in only 41 women (68%). Conclusions: Peritoneal carcinomatosis has typical features on TVS and, in the vast majority of cases, its genital origin can be correctly hypothesized. Power Doppler sonography strengthens the diagnosis by showing vascularity of the peritoneal implants. In a patient with a known pelvic malignancy or whenever peritoneal carcinomatosis is suspected, TVS can give useful information in order to better assess the presence and extension of metastatic nodules within the abdominal cavity.
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