The present document contains recommendations for assessment, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk for HIV-infected patients. All recommendations were graded according to the strength and quality of the evidence and were voted on by 73 members of the Italian Cardiovascular Risk Guidelines Working Group which includes both experts in HIV/AIDS care and in cardiovascular and metabolic medicine. Since antiretroviral drug exposure represents only one risk factor, continued emphasis on an integrated management is given. This should include prevention and treatment of known cardiovascular risk factors (such as dyslipidaemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, healthy diet, physical activity, avoidance of smoking), but also rational switch of antiretroviral drugs. A rational switch strategy should consider both metabolic and anthropometric disturbances and effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens.
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