Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0-24h), we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose-response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes.
Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation / Brittany M., Angle; Rylee Phuong, Do; PONZI, DAVIDE; Richard W., Stahlhut; Bertram E., Drury; Susan C., Nagel; Wade V., Welshons; Cynthia L., Besch Williford; PALANZA, Paola; PARMIGIANI, Stefano; Frederick S., vom Saal; Julia A., Taylor. - In: REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 0890-6238. - 42(2013), pp. 256-268. [10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.07.017]