This review focuses on recent results obtained by synchrotron X-ray techniques applied to the characterization of interfacial systems, with main emphasis on flat interfaces and on colloidal systems. The techniques covered are, for structural determinations: X-ray reflectivity (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and grazing incidence X-ray excited fluorescence (GIXF), while dynamics are investigated by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) mainly in the grazing-incidence geometry (GIXPCS). The systems reviewed are, in order of growing complexity, floating Langmuir monolayers, supported films of lipids and proteins, polymeric films, buried interfaces, colloidal systems and gels formed by colloids either in 3D or in the form of 2D interfacial layers. Recent results are critically discussed, and some interesting directions of development are outlined, having also in mind new technical developments such as X-ray free electron laser sources and micro-focused synchrotron beamlines.
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