Elevated levels of cytokines have been detected in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and altered peripheral levels of IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-6 have been reported in these patients. We studied the ability of PBMC from patients with AD, matched with a control group, to release pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and the effect of AChEI treatment on cytokine release. Our data indicates that AChEI treatment down-regulates IL-1, IL-6 and TNF, and up-regulates the expression and production of IL-4 in PBMC in AD patients, and that AChEI leads to the remodelling of the cytokine network, probably acting on the lymphocytic cholinergic system.
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