The increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production was previously observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to explore whether acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms in AD through down-regulation of inflammation. Expression and release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a positive regulator of Th2 differentiation, and interleukin (IL)-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in AD patients, were investigated. PBMC were purified from AD patients at time of enrollment (T0) and after 1 month of treatment with AChEI (T1) and from healthy controls (HC). Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine levels by ELISA methods. mRNA expression were determined by RT-PCR. Expression and production of MCP-1 and IL-4 were significantly increased in AD subjects under therapy with the AChEI Donepezil, compared to the same AD patients at time of enrollment (P < 0.001). Our data suggest another possible explanation for the ability of Donepezil [diethyl(3,5-di-ter-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)phosphonate] to delay the progression of AD; in fact, Donepezil may modulate MCP-1 and IL-4 production, which may reflect a general shift towards type Th0/Th2 cytokines which could be protective in AD disease. The different amounts of MCP-1 and IL-4 observed might reflect the different states of activation and/or responsiveness of PBMC, that in AD patients could be kept in an activated state by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Donepezil, regulates a Th2 bias in Alzheimer's disease patients / M. Reale;C. Iarlori;F. Gambi;C. Feliciani;L. Isabella;D. Gambi. - In: NEUROPHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0028-3908. - 50(2006), pp. 606-613. [10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.11.006]
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