Aging is associated with a progressive loss of bone-muscle mass and strength. When the decline in mass and strength reaches critical thresholds associated with adverse health outcomes, they are operationally considered geriatric conditions and named, respectively, osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia share many of the same risk factors and both directly or indirectly cause higher risk of mobility limitation, falls, fractures and disability in activities of daily living. This is not surprising since bones adapt their morphology and strength to the long-term loads exerted by muscle during anti-gravitational and physical activities. Non-mechanical systemic and local factors also modulate the mechanostat's effect of muscle on bone by affecting the bidirectional osteocyte-muscle crosstalk, but the specific mechanisms that regulate these homeostatic mechanisms are not fully understood. More research is required to reach a consensus on cut points in bone and muscle parameters that identify individuals at high risk for adverse health outcomes, including falls, fractures and disability. A better understanding of the muscle/bone physiological interaction may help develop preventive strategies that reduce the burden of musculoskeletal diseases and consequent disability in older persons and limit the financial burden associated with such conditions. In this review, we summarize age-related bone-muscle changes focusing on the biomechanical and homeostatic mechanisms that explain bone-muscle interaction and speculate about possible pathological events that occur when these mechanisms become impaired. We also report some recent definitions of osteoporosis and sarcopenia that have emerged in the literature and their implications in clinical practice. Finally, we outline the current evidence of efficacy of available anti-osteoporotic and proposed anti-sarcopenic interventions in older patients.
Interaction Between Bone And Muscle In Older Persons With Mobility Limitations / Ferrucci L; Baroni M; Ranchelli A; Lauretani F; Maggio M; Mecocci P; Ruggiero C. - In: CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN. - ISSN 1381-6128. - 20:19(2014), pp. 3178-3197.
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