Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common interstitial lung disease and is associated with a fatal prognosis. Familiarity with the typical appearances of IPF on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is important, as in the appropriate clinical setting, it is often sufficient for establishing a confident diagnosis of IPF without the need for surgical biopsy. Moreover, HRCT can provide important prognostic information in IPF. This is noteworthy, as the course of IPF is variable, and many patients develop complications leading to respiratory failure and death. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress made towards a better understanding of the HRCT patterns of IPF.
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