One hundred and sixty-seven subjects (91 females and 76 males) aged 18 to 55 and suffering from recurrent headache, daily headache, and cluster headache, were studied. In order to collect detailed information about their clinical as well as social and environmental conditions, a multi-page card was used which had been specially prepared for this purpose. The patients' personality patterns were assessed by the following methods: MMPI (the Hs, Hy, D, and Ma scales, in particular); EPQ (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire); and AS IPAT (Cattel's Anxiety Scale). The statistical analysis of the data obtained made it possible to define the personality patterns of both male and female subjects and then to differentiate between them in relation to the various types of headache. Furthermore, possible relationships between personality traits and headache suffering were investigated. If the personality patterns of females seem to have existed prior to the disease, those of males raise some questions. In cluster patients, in particular, the age of onset seems to be related to certain personality traits; in patients with daily headache, by contrast the association between the duration and severity of the disorder appears to play a major trigger role. Some of these correlations do not have a linear character and suggest new working hypotheses that go beyond the limits of standard correlations.
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