Mutations in the COL4A5 gene, which encodes the a5 chain of type IV collagen, are found in a large fraction of patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. The recently discovered COL4A6, tightly linked and highly homologous to COL4A5, represents a second candidate gene for Alport syndrome. We analyzed 177 Italian Alport syndrome families by Southern blotting using cDNA probes from both COL4A5 and COL4A6. Nine unrelated families, accounting for 5% of the cases, were found to have a rearrangement in COL4A5. No rearrangements were found in COL4A6, with the exception of a deletion encompassing the 5' ends of both COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes in a patient with Alport syndrome and leiomyomatosis. COL4A5 rearrangements were all intragenic and included 1 duplication and 7 deletions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was carried out to characterize deletion and duplication boundaries and to predict the resulting protein abnormality. The two smallest deletions involved a single exon (exons 17 and 40, respectively), while the largest ones spanned exons 1 to 36. The clinical phenotype of patients in whom a rearrangement in COL4A5 was detected was severe, with progression to end-stage renal failure in juvenile age and hypoacusis occurring in most cases. These data have some important implications in the diagnosis of patients with Alport syndrome.
Major COL4A5 gene rearrangements in patients with juvenile type Alport syndrome / Renieri A; Galli L; Grillo A; Bruttini M; Neri T; Zanelli P; Rizzoni G; Massella L; Sessa A; Meroni M; Peratoner L; Riegler P; Scolari F; Mileti M; Giani M; Cossu M; Savi M; Ballabio A; De Marchi M.. - In: AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS. - ISSN 0148-7299. - 59(1995), pp. 380-385.
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