Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is often employed in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic prostate cancer. Although its use as an adjuvant therapy has resulted in improved survival in a subset of patients, ADT also results in a multitude of endocrine complications. These complications affect quality of life and sense of well-being in these men. Some of the endocrine complications of ADT such as osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, gynecomastia, and adverse body composition are well-known. Recently, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and metabolic syndrome have emerged as metabolic complications of castration and may be responsible for increased cardiovascular mortality in this population. In this article, we provide a detailed review of the endocrine complications of ADT, touching upon management strategies where applicable.
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