In recent years, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodelling in chronic bronchial inflammation, such as asthma and COPD, and in its role in the progression of disease. In particular, the bronchial mucosa in asthmatics is more vascularised, showing a higher number and dimension of vessels and vascular area. Recently, insight has been obtained regarding the pivotal role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in promoting vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Many studies, conducted on biopsies, induced sputum or BAL, have shown the involvement of VEGF and its receptors in the vascular remodelling processes. Presumably, the vascular component of airway remodelling is a complex multi-step phenomenon involving several mediators. Among the common asthma and COPD medications, only inhaled corticosteroids have demonstrated a real ability to reverse all aspects of vascular remodelling. The aim of this review was to analyze the morphological aspects of the vascular component of airway remodelling and the possible mechanisms involved in asthma and COPD. We also focused on the functional and therapeutic implications of the bronchial microvascular changes in asthma and COPD.
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