The design of a photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected converter usually comprehends a galvanic isolation between the grid and the photovoltaic panels. Recently, in low power systems, the galvanic isolation has been removed with the aim to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of the converter. Due to the presence of a parasitic capacitance between the photovoltaic cells and the metal frame of the PV panel, usually connected to earth, a high value of common mode current (i.e., ground leakage current) can arise. In order to limit the ground leakage current (which deteriorates the power quality and generates EMI), new converter topologies have been proposed. Their effectiveness is based on the symmetrical (ideal) commutations of the power switches and some of them adopt a further voltage level derived from a capacitive divider of the DC bus voltage. Unfortunately, in actual implementations, asymmetrical power switches transients and variations of this added voltage lead to higher ground leakage current with respect to the ideal case.
Digital Control of Actual Grid-Connected Converters for Ground Leakage Current Reduction in PV Transformerless Systems / G. Buticchi;D. Barater;E. Lorenzani;G. Franceschini. - In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. - ISSN 1551-3203. - 8:3(2012), pp. 563-572. [10.1109/TII.2012.2192284]