A 80-year-old woman with a history of severe degenerative dementia, with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), COPD and hypertension, was admitted to our hospital (Geriatric Unit, University Hospital of Parma) for an acute change in her cognitive status, with stupor status. The clinical question was: “What is the cause of this rapid worsening of cognitive and mental condition in a demented patient?” A diagnosis of Non-Convulsive Status Epilecticus (NCSE), defined by behavioral or cognitive changes from a patient's baseline state of functioning, with seizure activity on EEG, should be considered when patients with severe dementia are admitted to hospital. It is sufficient for the diagnosis of NCSE to be suspected and not strictly confirmed to start preliminary treatment with an antiepileptic drug.
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