Main progresses in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases,otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory tract illnesses selected from articles published inThe Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2011 were reviewed. Risk factors for gastroenteritis andappendicitis in developing countries may be useful in improving our understanding of these diseases.Childhood hearing impairment is a world-wide problem which continues to have an high prevalencein newborns. Among the mechanisms of diseases, obese children often have asthma and high hepcidinlevels that may reduce serum iron concentrations. In cystic fibrosis, 18q distal deletion has beendescribed as a novel mutation. Hypothyroidism in children with central nervous system infectionsmay increase mortality rates. Infrared tympanic thermometer (IRTT) in oral mode for themeasurement of body temperature may be useful in fever screening in a busy setup. In newborns, thetransmission of CMV infection through breast milk may be prevented through freezing orpasteurization. Recent advances in treatment of constipation, urinary tract infections, leukemia, painin children with cancer, neonates with sepsis or difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation willlikely contribute towards optimizing management of these common disorders. The work of theFamily Pediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network aims to develop competence,infrastructure, networking and education for pediatric clinical trials.
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