Endosseous implants are important tools to replace missing teeth or damaged tissue segments. Their clinical success depends on their integration in bone and, thus, on the response of bone cells to material and surface characteristics. Recent evidence has shown that surface topography and chemistry affect WNT signalling, a pivotal pathway for the commitment of mesenchymal progenitors to the osteoblast lineage and for bone homeostasis. WNT signalling comprises several cascades that, acting through different effectors, modulate several aspects of cell behaviour. It has been shown that cells growing on rough titanium factors, and that surface features can alter the response of bone cells to WNT factors. Although the underlying mechanisms to this regulation are still poorly understood, the present review reports intriguing evidence that that cell cytoskeletal signalling is involved in activating WNT signalling in cells growing on rough implant surfaces.
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