The swimmers health's protection and the maintenance of good safety standards of structures can be guaranteed under observance of rules and the well management of the structures and activities. An anonymous questionnaire, with 38 items, was used in order to analyse and better understand the knowledge and behaviour of the users of three swimming pools in Crema, Naples and Parma. Socio-demographic features were similar in the three centres. One of the most important result was that the necessity of showers and foot-bath before entering the swimming pool is not well understood (77% and 78% respectively); caps and foot bath are, instead, almost always worn (98% and 97%). Knowledge on infection diseases transmitted by water is very poor, warts and mycosis being the best known. Sport structures are places where health and wellness can be affected. It is important to underline the role of behavioural rules as the use of showers, caps, and proper shoes. Authors recognize the swimming pool regulations as a valid tool for health promotion. It must be clear and easily understood and it has to be linked to a proper education pathway of all users and employees.
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