Corrosion casts from neoprene direct injection of lymphatic and blood vessels in guinea pig gut-associated lymphoid tissue, that is, solitary lymphoid follicles and Peyer's patches, have shown both their numerical density and their topographical arrangement in physiological conditions, after starvation and lymphatic stasis. The absorbing peripheral lymphatic vessel (ALPA) begins with the lacteal vessel, which continues in the mucosal lymphatic network. The latter is formed by subepithelial and interfollicular vessels wrapping single lymphoid follicles like a basket. Interfollicular vessels drain in the submucosal network, which flows into muscular tunica vessels with nonsegmentary bicuspid valves. They in turn drain lymph in subserosal precollectors and then in prelymphonodal collectors with conduction function. The follicles' germinal center and dome are completely devoid of ALPA vessels, while they are rich in blood vessels. Ultrastructurally, the ALPA vessel wall consists of a monolayer of endothelial cells devoid of pores, fenestrations, and open junctions and lacking a continuous basal lamina. Endothelial cells are joined by overlapping and interdigitating intercellular contacts, while end-to-end contacts are rare. They have a sizeable cell body, containing the nucleus and the common endocytoplasmic organelles, and a peripheral cytoplasm with actin-like filament bundles, free microvesicles or forming channels and a few rough-surfaced encloplasmic reticulum (RER) canaliculi. The presence of intraendothelial channels crossed by lymphocytes can often be detected within the endothelial wall during the different phases of cell transendothelial migration from lymphoid tissue to lymphatic vessel lumen. These channels undergo a numerical increase during starvation, while they are scarce during lymphatic stasis. We have quantitatively evaluated the prevalence of T lymphocytes in the lymph of interfollicular ALPA vessels and of prelymphonodal collectors draining the small intestine tract with or without Peyer's patches, under physiological and experimental conditions (starvation, lymphatic stasis).
Ultrastructure of absorbing peripheral lymphatic vessel (ALPA) in guinea pigPeyer's patches / AZZALI G.; VITALE M.; ARCARI ML.. - In: MICROVASCULAR RESEARCH. - ISSN 0026-2862. - 64(2)(2002), pp. 289-301. [10.1006/mvre.2002.2428]