This study detailed the structure of turbulence in the air-side and water-side boundary layers in wind-induced surface waves. Inside the air boundary layer, the kurtosis is always greater than 3 (the value for normal distribution) for both horizontal and vertical velocity fluctuations. The skewness for the horizontal velocity is negative, but the skewness for the vertical velocity is always positive. On the water side, the kurtosis is always greater than 3, and the skewness is slightly negative for the horizontal velocity and slightly positive for the vertical velocity. The statistics of the angle between the instantaneous vertical fluctuation and the instantaneous horizontal velocity in the air is similar to those obtained over solid walls. Measurements in water show a large variance, and the peak is biased towards negative angles. In the quadrant analysis, the contribution of quadrants Q2 and Q4 is dominant on both the air side and the water side. The non-dimensional relative contributions and the concentration match fairly well near the interface. Sweeps in the air side (belonging to quadrant Q4)act directly on the interface and exert pressure fluctuations, which, in addition to the tangential stress and form drag, lead to the growth of the waves. The water drops detached from the crest and accelerated by the wind can play a major role in transferring momentum and in enhancing the turbulence level in the water side. On the air side, the Reynolds stress tensor’s principal axes are not collinear with the strain rate tensor, and show an angle 20 to 25 . On the water side, the angle is 40 to 45 . The ratio between the maximum and the minimum principal stresses is 3 to 4 a b on the air side, and 1.5 to 3 a b on the water side. In this respect, the air-side flow behaves like a classical boundary layer on a solid wall, while the water-side flow resembles a wake. The frequency of bursting on the water side increases significantly along the flow, which can be attributed to micro-breaking effects - expected to be more frequent at larger fetches.
Study of the turbulence in the air-side and water-side boundary layers in experimental laboratory wind induced surface waves / S. Longo; L. Chiapponi; M. Clavero; T. Mäkelä; D. Liang. - In: COASTAL ENGINEERING. - ISSN 0378-3839. - 69(2012), pp. 67-81. [10.1016/j.coastaleng.2012.05.012]