Abstract Acantholytic carcinoma is a subtype of squamous carcinoma, characterized by tubular and alveolar formations as a consequence of the acantholysis. We report a case of vulvar squamous acantholytic carcinoma (VSAC) in a 69-year-old woman, who was admitted to our institution for vulvar pruritus and the presence of a large, bilateral, exophytic, and ulcerated lesion, measuring 7 x 8 cm. The patient had never received vulvar or pelvic radiation therapy. Pathological examination with an immunohistochemical study showed features of VSAC and high p16(INK4a) protein expression. Molecular study by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA tumor revealed a weakly positive signal for human papillomavirus. In conclusion, our case, which is the first case of VSAC with polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemical expression of p16(INK4a) protein, suggested that this neoplasm could be related to human papillomavirus infection.
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