Abstract Background & Aims: Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9). Two common variants of the CYP2C9 gene (CYP2C9*2 and *3) were reported to significantly affect the activity of the CYP2C9 enzyme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CYP2C9 polymorphisms on the risk of gastroduodenal bleeding in acute NSAID users. Methods: This case-control study included 26 patients with endoscopically documented NSAID-related gastroduodenal bleeding lesions and 52 age-, sex- and NSAID use–matched controls with no lesions at endoscopy. Both cases and controls were Helicobacter pylori negative and acute users of an NSAID or cycloxygenase-2 inhibitor that undergoes CYP2C9 metabolism (ie, celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, or piroxicam). Two marker single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene, identifying the CYP2C9 *2 and *3 allele, were evaluated in all subjects. Results: Setting the CYP2C9*1/*1 wild type as reference, significantly higher frequencies of CYP2C9*1/*3 (34.6% vs 5.8%; P < .001; odds ratio [OR], 12.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.917–57.922) and CYP2C9*1/*2 (26.9% vs 15.4%; P .036; OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.090 –13.190) were identified in bleeding versus control patients, whereas no differences between bleeding and controls were observed in the distribution of CYP2C9*2/*3 heterozygotes. Considering allele carriers, the presence of CYP2C9*3 allele was associated with a significant high risk of bleeding (adjusted OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.058 –26.004). Conclusions: CYP2C9 genotyping may identify subgroups of persons who potentially are at increased risk of gastroduodenal bleeding when treated with NSAIDs metabolized by CYP2C9. Further studies that evaluate the effectiveness of a strategy using CYP2C9 genotyping in NSAID users are needed before genotyping is introduced into clinical practice.