Recent studies suggest that retinoids may be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, although exposure to an excess of retinoids during gestation causes teratogenesis. Cholesterol is essential for brain development, but high levels of cholesterol have been associated with Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that retinoic acid may affect cholesterol homeostasis in rat astrocytes, which regulate cholesterol distribution in the brain, through the up-regulation of cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette (Abc)a1 and Abcg1. Tretinoin, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis-RA), 9-cis-RA, and the selective retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist methoprene significantly increased cholesterol efflux induced by cholesterol acceptors and protein levels of Abca1 by 2.3- (+/- 0.25), 3.6- (+/- 0.42), 4.1-(+/- 0.5), and 1.75- (+/- 0.43) fold, respectively, and Abcg1 by 2.1(+/- 0.26), 2.2- (+/- 0.33), 2.5- (+/- 0.23), and 2.2- (+/- 0.21) fold, respectively. 13-cis-RA and 9-cis-RA also significantly increased mRNA levels of Abca1 (maximal induction 7.3 +/- 0.42 and 2.7 +/- 0.17, respectively) and Abcg1 (maximal induction 2.0 +/- 0.18 and 1.8 +/- 0.09, respectively), and the levels of membrane-bound Abca1 (2.5 +/- 0.3 and 2.5 +/- 0.40-fold increase, respectively), whereas they significantly decreased intracellular cholesterol content without affecting cholesterol synthesis. The effect of 9-cis-RA on cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes can be ascribed to the activation of RXR, whereas the effects of 13-cis-RA and tretinoin were independent of either RXRs or retinoic acid receptors. These findings suggest that retinoids affect cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes and that this effect may be involved in both their therapeutic and teratogenic actions.
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