The number of mathematical models of cardiac cellular excitability is rapidly growing, and compact graphical representations of their properties can make new acquisitions available for a broader range of scientists in cardiac field. Particularly, the intrinsic over-determination of the model equations systems when fitted only to action potential (AP) waveform and the fact that they are frequently tuned on data covering only a relatively narrow range of dynamic conditions, often lead modellers to compare very similar AP profiles, which underlie though quite different excitable properties. In this study I discuss a novel compact 3D representation of the cardiac cellular AP, where the third dimension represents the instantaneous current-voltage profile of the membrane, measured as repolarization proceeds. Measurements of this type have been used previously for in vivo experiments, and are adopted here iteratively at a very high time, voltage, current-resolution on (i) the same human ventricular model, endowed with 2 different parameters sets which generate the same AP waveform, and on (ii) three different models of the same human ventricular cell type. In these 3D representations, the AP waveforms lie at the intersection between instantaneous time-voltage-current surfaces and the zero-current plane. Different surfaces can share the same intersection and therefore the same AP; in these cases, the morphology of the current surface provides a compact view of important differences within corresponding repolarization dynamics. Refractory period, supernormal excitability window, and extent of repolarization reserve can be visualized at once. Two pivotal dynamical properties can be precisely assessed, i.e. all-or-nothing repolarization window and membrane resistance during recovery. I discuss differences in these properties among the membranes under study, and show relevant implications for cardiac cellular repolarization.
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