Growing evidence has assigned to oxalate a pivotal role in calcium nephrolithiasis pathophysiology. A better understanding of the mechanisms behind intestinal absorption and renal excretion has led to the identification of new treatments. Among these, diet and probiotics appear promising in terms of safety and rationale. However, the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo results requires further studies to identify the right patient target, the correct dosage, and the real modification of natural and clinical history of nephrolithiasis.
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