This article summarizes the results presented in a series of invited contributions which were submitted to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of publication of the seminal article "Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals" by G. E. Hutchinson. The authors were asked to explore old and new paradigms of biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems. The contributions by Hutchinson in this field are truly landmarks in the history of modern ecological sciences. The authors of the contributed articles, stimulated by one of the most fruitful concept articles in ecology that has appeared over the last half century, have shown that scientific investigation, although still seeking the causes underlying diversity maintenance, is moving toward (i) the understanding of the functions and mechanisms of diversity in ecosystems and (ii) the evaluation of the role of a diversified assemblage in ensuring the integrity of ecosystem services.
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