Breath analysis is a technique rapidly gaining ground as a non-invasive tool to diagnose and monitor various aspects of lung diseases. Measurement of exhaled breath is safe, rapid, simple to perform, and effort independent. Given that human breath contains upwards of 250 chemicals, the potential for developing new applications is high. Much of the current knowledge on breath analysis in respiratory medicine derives from years of experience gained in occupational settings, where breath analysis has been used mainly to assess exposure to volatile chemicals. Laboratory based analysis of exhaled air is a complex, expensive and time consuming process and thus is not in wide spread use in occupational medicine. However, recent knowledge of exhaled breath analysis in pulmonology, in particular in bronchial asthma and lung cancer, and the development of fast, and easy to perform non-invasive procedures for breath analysis, re-opened possible application of exhaled breath as a novel approach for biological monitoring of inhaled pneumotoxic substances. The simultaneous quantification of biomarkers of dose and effect in exhaled air may provide new insights into lung damage occurring in workers exposed to inhaled toxicants, thus representing a new and fascinating application in risk assessment strategies.