Anodic spark deposition (ASD) is an attractive technique for improving the implant–bone interface that can be applied to titanium and titanium alloys. This technique produces a surface with microporous morphology and an oxide layer enriched with calcium and phosphorus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological response in vitro using primary human osteoblasts as a cellular model and the osteogenic primary response in vivo within a short experimental time frame (2 and 4 weeks) in an animal model (rabbit). Responses were assessed by comparing the new electrochemical biomimetic treatments to an acid-etching treatment as control. The in vitro biological response was characterized by cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation activity and cell metabolic activity. A complete assessment of osteogenic activity in vivo was achieved by estimating static and dynamic histomorphometric parameters at several time points within the considered time frame. The in vitro study showed enhanced osteoblast adhesion and higher metabolic activity for the ASD-treated surfaces during the first days after seeding compared to the control titanium. For the ASD surfaces, the histomorphometry indicated a higher mineral apposition rate within 2 weeks and a more extended bone activation within the first week after surgery, leading to more extensive bone–implant contact after 2 weeks. In conclusion, the ASD surface treatments enhanced the biological response in vitro, promoting an early osteoblast adhesion, and the osteointegrative properties in vivo, accelerating the primary osteogenic response.
In vitro cellular response and in vivo primary osteointegration of electrochemically modified titanium / Ravanetti, Francesca; Borghetti, Paolo; DE ANGELIS, Elena; Chiesa, R.; Martini, Filippo Maria; Gabbi, Carlo; Cacchioli, Antonio. - In: ACTA BIOMATERIALIA. - ISSN 1742-7061. - 6(3)(2010), pp. 1014-1024. [10.1016/j.actbio.2009.09.022]
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