Although the majority of diagnoses in gynecological pathology are established on the examination of routine hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional tests are occasionally required to render an accurate diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is one such ancillary stain widely used to provide additional diagnostic information in problematic cases. The current review considers immunohistochemical data which could prove useful for achieving an accurate diagnosis in the more common cases of diagnostic difficulty in uterine pathology. In addition, differential diagnostic problems and the relevant immunohistochemical stains for very rare neoplasms of the uterus are also considered. Although the current review demonstrates that immunohistochemistry is a useful ancillary technique for making an accurate diagnosis, the data provided by the clinical history, extensive sampling, and good histology are equally important regarding several diagnostic difficulties. Moreover, in many instances, for an accurate diagnosis, immunohistochemical analysis with a panel of markers is more useful than a study with a single antibody.
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