Cadmium sulphide thin films have been grown using a modified chemical bath deposition method with four innovative features: i) ethylenediamine was used as the complexing agent, enabling the use of low cadmium concentrations, ii) a rectangular bath geometry with heated glass plate walls was employed, iii) a low deposition temperature (30 degrees C) was used and iv) nitrogen gas was flowed over the substrate surface during growth. The latter two features eliminate the formation and adherence of gas bubbles on the substrate during growth, hence reducing pinhole formation. On inspection, films were found to be specularly reflective and homogeneous with no visible pinholes. Characterisation was performed by atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was shown that films possessed a low surface roughness value of 5.2 nm, were highly crystalline, textured, had a grain size of 15 nm and a bandgap of 2.42 eV Preliminary results from CdTe/CdS thin film photovoltaic devices demonstrate a notable efficiency of 9.8%. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Development of low temperature approaches to device quality cds: a modified geometry for solution growth of thin films and their characterisation / Archbold M D; Halliday D P ; Durose K; Hase T P A; Boyle D S; Mazzamuto S; Romeo N; Bosio A.. - In: THIN SOLID FILMS. - ISSN 0040-6090. - 515:5(2007), pp. 2954-2957. [10.1016/j.tsf.2006.09.005]