ABSTRACT. Effects of primary hypothyroidism (HYPO) on the male gonadal axis are controversial, with only scanty data on the gonadotroph cell response and no information on GnRH tuberoinfundibular neurons, even in animal models. HYPO has been reported to variably induce hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a hypergonadotropic state, or to have no effects on basal levels of pituitary gonadotropins, both in adult male rats and humans. Similarly, the exogenous administration of GnRH to HYPO rats and humans may increase or decrease gonadotropin secretion. Since inhibitory effects of HYPO on the GnRH-gonadotropin axis are reversed by replacement with L-T4, it has been suggested that thyroid hormone (TH) may regulate tuberoinfundibular GnRH and pituitary gonadotropin biosynthesis and/or secretion. To shed light on this hypothesis, we conducted immunocytochemical studies on the distribution and immunostaining characteristics of hypophysiotropic GnRH neurons, LH, PRL and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the pituitary of adult, male rats. We show that HYPO reduces IR-GnRH in a restricted population of tuberoinfundibular perikarya and their proximal axons compared to euthyroid controls, but increases IR-VIP both in pituitary cells in direct association with LH-gonadotrophs and within IR-LH cells, itself. We propose that VIP may serve as a juxtacrine/paracrine/autocrine regulator of LH secretion and that, when GnRH biosynthesis is reduced by HYPO, gonadotropin secretion may be rescued by local activating effects of VIP. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), industry toxicants found in food and water, also have inhibitory effects on the gonadal axis, decreasing fertility and suppressing basal and GnRHinduced LH release in male rats. Since PCB may also exert endocrine disruptor-dependent (EDD) effects on the thyroid axis producing a non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) (coined EDD-NTIS), we developed a rat model of EDD-NTIS to determine whether central hypothyroidism may contribute to the pathophysiology of PCB-induced hypogonadism. On the basis of preliminary animal data, we speculate that one of the mechanisms for Partial Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male may involve central hypothyroidism and EDD-NTIS, resulting in inhibition of the GnRH-gonadotroph axis.J. Endocrinol. Invest. 28 (Suppl. to no. 11):20-27, 2005

EFFECTS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR-DEPENDENT NONTHYROIDAL ILLNESS SYNDROME ON THE GnRH-GONADOTROPHS AXIS OF THE MALE RAT / TONI R.; C. DELLA CASA; S. CASTORINA; D. COCCHI; F. CELOTTI. - In: JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 0391-4097. - 28 (suppl to n. 11):(2005), pp. 20-27.

EFFECTS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR-DEPENDENT NONTHYROIDAL ILLNESS SYNDROME ON THE GnRH-GONADOTROPHS AXIS OF THE MALE RAT

TONI, Roberto;
2005

Abstract

ABSTRACT. Effects of primary hypothyroidism (HYPO) on the male gonadal axis are controversial, with only scanty data on the gonadotroph cell response and no information on GnRH tuberoinfundibular neurons, even in animal models. HYPO has been reported to variably induce hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a hypergonadotropic state, or to have no effects on basal levels of pituitary gonadotropins, both in adult male rats and humans. Similarly, the exogenous administration of GnRH to HYPO rats and humans may increase or decrease gonadotropin secretion. Since inhibitory effects of HYPO on the GnRH-gonadotropin axis are reversed by replacement with L-T4, it has been suggested that thyroid hormone (TH) may regulate tuberoinfundibular GnRH and pituitary gonadotropin biosynthesis and/or secretion. To shed light on this hypothesis, we conducted immunocytochemical studies on the distribution and immunostaining characteristics of hypophysiotropic GnRH neurons, LH, PRL and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the pituitary of adult, male rats. We show that HYPO reduces IR-GnRH in a restricted population of tuberoinfundibular perikarya and their proximal axons compared to euthyroid controls, but increases IR-VIP both in pituitary cells in direct association with LH-gonadotrophs and within IR-LH cells, itself. We propose that VIP may serve as a juxtacrine/paracrine/autocrine regulator of LH secretion and that, when GnRH biosynthesis is reduced by HYPO, gonadotropin secretion may be rescued by local activating effects of VIP. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), industry toxicants found in food and water, also have inhibitory effects on the gonadal axis, decreasing fertility and suppressing basal and GnRHinduced LH release in male rats. Since PCB may also exert endocrine disruptor-dependent (EDD) effects on the thyroid axis producing a non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) (coined EDD-NTIS), we developed a rat model of EDD-NTIS to determine whether central hypothyroidism may contribute to the pathophysiology of PCB-induced hypogonadism. On the basis of preliminary animal data, we speculate that one of the mechanisms for Partial Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male may involve central hypothyroidism and EDD-NTIS, resulting in inhibition of the GnRH-gonadotroph axis.J. Endocrinol. Invest. 28 (Suppl. to no. 11):20-27, 2005
EFFECTS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR-DEPENDENT NONTHYROIDAL ILLNESS SYNDROME ON THE GnRH-GONADOTROPHS AXIS OF THE MALE RAT / TONI R.; C. DELLA CASA; S. CASTORINA; D. COCCHI; F. CELOTTI. - In: JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION. - ISSN 0391-4097. - 28 (suppl to n. 11):(2005), pp. 20-27.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/1509111
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