J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 8;98(1-2):117-25. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Speroni E, Cervellati R, Innocenti G, Costa S, Guerra MC, Dall' Acqua S, Govoni P. Source Department of Pharmacology, via Irnerio 48, Bologna University, 40126 Bologna, Italy. email@example.com Abstract The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol (ME), butanol (BE) extracts and of two new saponins isolated from Balanites aegyptiaca bark were evaluated. The study was carried out in vivo and in vitro. The samples, extracts and pure substances, were intra-gastrically administered to animals. Two different animal models, the carrageenin-induced edema, in the rat, and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, were adopted. Moreover, the antioxidant power of extracts, fractions and individual constituents from Balanites aegyptiaca has been evaluated in vitro, using a method based on the Briggs-Rauscher (BR) oscillating reaction. Results obtained demonstrate that both ME or BE have a significant effect at the highest dose on the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid, with a 38 and 54% inhibition respectively, but no significant difference was observed for extracts at the lowest dose and for the pure compounds compared with control animals. The same extracts exhibit a significant reduction on the rat paw edema. The inhibition produced by ME is about the same (28+/-3% lowest dose, 32+/-3% highest dose) after administration. A more evident effect is obtained by BE (41+/-3% and 68+/-6% respectively) and single saponins B1 and B2 (62+/-5% and 59+/-6% respectively) after oral administration. The antioxidant activity obtained seems to be in good accordance with the pharmacological results. The histological sections of rat paw confirm the antiflogistic activity of the plant extracts.