Pseudoaneurysm associated with an arterioenteric fistula is rare, but its clinical manifestations may represent a dramatic event that involves diagnostic and therapeutic problems. We report a case of an arterioduodenal fistula related to a ruptured pseudoaneurysm after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage treated by embolization of the Y graft. A 51-year-old man with type I diabetes and end-stage renal disease underwent SPK. No rejection episodes were documented; the patient was discharged with normal pancreatic and renal function. Two months later the patient was readmitted for an episode of massive lower digestive bleeding and hypotension. The Y-graft was embolized in order to obtain a prompt arrest of the bleeding. The procedure was successful and the patient progressively recovered. Once the hypovolemia was completely corrected, the graft was removed. An arterioenteric fistula between donor mesenteric artery and duodenum was confirmed. Few reports exist in the literature regarding the development of a pseudoaneurysm after pancreas transplantation. To our best knowledge only one case of pseudoaneurysm rupture into donor duodenum has been recently published. In our case angiography recognized the site of the pseudoaneurysm and its rupture into donor duodenum. Embolization of the Y-graft appeared the most rapid, simple, and safe approach to obtain the prompt arrest of the massive bleeding. Embolization of the Y-graft may represent a valid option in the presence of life-threatening hemorrhage
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