Eleven γ-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (Acpca) platforms, including four dihydroxy representatives (19−22), three hydroxy analogues (34−36), and four deoxy derivatives (30−33), were prepared in a chiral nonracemic format. These simple units were then grafted onto an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide framework by a mixed solid phase/solution protocol delivering an ensemble of 11 macrocyclic analogues of type cyclo-[-Arg-Gly-Asp-Acpca-], 1−11. The individual compounds were evaluated for their binding affinity toward the αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrin receptors. The analogue 10 exhibited a very interesting activity profile (IC50/αVβ3 = 1.5 nM; IC50/αVβ5 = 0.59 nM), comparable to that of reference compounds EMD121974 and ST1646. Closely related congeners 6, 8, and 9 also proved to be excellent dual binders with activity levels in the low nanomolar range. The three-dimensional (3D) NMR solution structures were determined, and docking studies to X-ray crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin αVβ3 in complex with the reference compound EMD121974 were performed on selected analogues to elucidate the interplay between structure and function in these systems and to evidence the subtle bases for receptorial recognition. The results prove that the principle of isosteric dipeptide replacement for peptidomimetics design and synthesis can be violated, without detriment to the development of highly effective integrin binders.
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