Laryngoscope. 2005 Jun;115(6):1079-81. Cochlear implantation in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Vincenti V, Pasanisi E, Bacciu A, Giordano D, Di Lella F, Guida M, Bacciu S. SourceDepartment of Otolaryngology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. email@example.com Abstract OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Patients infected with HIV have an increased risk of developing sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), yet pathogenesis of SNHL in HIV infection is still poorly understood. In subjects affected by bilateral profound or total SNHL, cochlear implantation may be the only possibility to restore a hearing level that allows them to have an acceptable quality of life. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of a HIV type 1-seropositive profoundly deafened patient who underwent cochlear implantation. RESULTS: To date, with a follow-up of 4 years, the patient has not experienced any complication and has regained useful open-set speech perception. CONCLUSIONS: Cochlear impairment with preserved auditory pathways can be responsible for profound SNHL in HIV-infected patients. Cochlear implantation can restore a social hearing in these patients, dramatically improving their quality of life. The surgical procedure can be safely performed when keeping in mind that the general condition of the patient is the decisive factor for or against surgery.