A first description of the structural organization of two exocrine glands associated with the mandibles of queens of the obligatory slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens is reported. The mandibular gland consists of clustered bicellular secretory units connected by means of cuticular ducts to a big reservoir. The reservoir continues in a ducts that opens proximally on the mandible cuticle. Intramandibular glands are isolated bicellular secretory units connected to the external pores through a cuticular duct. No reservoir has been observed. In both cases the secretory cells belong to the 3rd class. Functional aspects of the investigated glands are discussed taking also into account for the parasitic habit of this slave-making species.
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