Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite with a global distribution. The definitive host is the cat (and other felids). All warm-blooded animals can act as intermediate hosts, including humans. Sexual reproduction (gametogony) takes place in the final host and oocysts are released in the environment, where they then sporulate to become infective. In intermediate hosts the cycle is extra-intestinal and results in the formation of tachyzoites and bradyzoites. Tachyzoites represent the invasive and proliferative stage and on entering a cell it multiplies asexually by endodyogeny. Bradyzoites within tissue cysts are the latent form. T. gondii is a food-borne parasite causing toxoplasmosis, which can occur in both animals and humans. Infection in humans is asymptomatic in more than 80% of cases in Europe and North-America. In the remaining cases patients present fever, cervical lymphadenopathy and other non-specific clinical signs. Nevertheless, toxoplasmosis is life threatening if it occurs in immunocompromised subjects. The present chapter reviews the epidemiology and risk factors associated with disease in humans and animals. Diagnosis and control are also reviewed

Toxoplasmosis / Vismarra, Alice; Kramer, Laura Helen; Genchi, Marco. - 2:(2022), pp. 724-740. [10.1016/B978-0-12-818731-9.00034-3]

Toxoplasmosis

Alice Vismarra
;
Laura Kramer;Marco Genchi
2022

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is a coccidian parasite with a global distribution. The definitive host is the cat (and other felids). All warm-blooded animals can act as intermediate hosts, including humans. Sexual reproduction (gametogony) takes place in the final host and oocysts are released in the environment, where they then sporulate to become infective. In intermediate hosts the cycle is extra-intestinal and results in the formation of tachyzoites and bradyzoites. Tachyzoites represent the invasive and proliferative stage and on entering a cell it multiplies asexually by endodyogeny. Bradyzoites within tissue cysts are the latent form. T. gondii is a food-borne parasite causing toxoplasmosis, which can occur in both animals and humans. Infection in humans is asymptomatic in more than 80% of cases in Europe and North-America. In the remaining cases patients present fever, cervical lymphadenopathy and other non-specific clinical signs. Nevertheless, toxoplasmosis is life threatening if it occurs in immunocompromised subjects. The present chapter reviews the epidemiology and risk factors associated with disease in humans and animals. Diagnosis and control are also reviewed
978-0-323-90303-5
Toxoplasmosis / Vismarra, Alice; Kramer, Laura Helen; Genchi, Marco. - 2:(2022), pp. 724-740. [10.1016/B978-0-12-818731-9.00034-3]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2887476
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