This thesis investigates quantum transport in the energy space of two paradigm systems of quantum chaos theory. These are highly excited hydrogen atoms subject to a microwave field, and kicked atoms which mimic the delta-kicked rotor model. Both of these systems show a complex dynamical evolution arising from the interaction with an external time-periodic driving force. In particular two quantum phenomena, which have no counterpart on the classical level, are studied: the suppression of classical diffusion, known as dynamical localisation, and quantum resonances as a regime of enhanced transport for the delta-kicked rotor. The first part of the thesis provides new support for the quantitative analogy between energy transport in strongly driven highly excited atoms and particle transport in Anderson-localised solids. A comprehensive numerical analysis of the atomic ionisation rates shows that they obey a universal power-law distribution, in agreement with Anderson localisation theory. This is demonstrated for a one-dimensional model as well as for the real three-dimensional atom. We also discuss the implications of the universal decay-rate distributions for the asymptotic time-decay of the survival probability of the atoms. The second part of the thesis clarifies the effect of decoherence, induced by spontaneous emission, on the quantum resonances which have been observed in a recent experiment with delta-kicked atoms. Scaling laws are derived, based on a quasi-classical approximation of the quantum evolution. These laws describe the shape of the resonance peaks in the mean energy of an experimental ensemble of kicked atoms. Our analytical results match perfectly numerical computations and explain the initially surprising experimental observations. Furthermore, they open the door to the study of the competing effects of decoherence and chaos on the stability of the time evolution of kicked atoms. This stability may be characterised by the overlap of two identical initial states which are subject to different time evolutions. This overlap, called fidelity, is investigated in an experimentally accessible situation.

Chaos and Localisation: Quantum Transport in Periodically Driven Atomic Systems / S. Wimberger - : . , 2004.

Chaos and Localisation: Quantum Transport in Periodically Driven Atomic Systems

WIMBERGER, Sandro Marcel
2004

Abstract

This thesis investigates quantum transport in the energy space of two paradigm systems of quantum chaos theory. These are highly excited hydrogen atoms subject to a microwave field, and kicked atoms which mimic the delta-kicked rotor model. Both of these systems show a complex dynamical evolution arising from the interaction with an external time-periodic driving force. In particular two quantum phenomena, which have no counterpart on the classical level, are studied: the suppression of classical diffusion, known as dynamical localisation, and quantum resonances as a regime of enhanced transport for the delta-kicked rotor. The first part of the thesis provides new support for the quantitative analogy between energy transport in strongly driven highly excited atoms and particle transport in Anderson-localised solids. A comprehensive numerical analysis of the atomic ionisation rates shows that they obey a universal power-law distribution, in agreement with Anderson localisation theory. This is demonstrated for a one-dimensional model as well as for the real three-dimensional atom. We also discuss the implications of the universal decay-rate distributions for the asymptotic time-decay of the survival probability of the atoms. The second part of the thesis clarifies the effect of decoherence, induced by spontaneous emission, on the quantum resonances which have been observed in a recent experiment with delta-kicked atoms. Scaling laws are derived, based on a quasi-classical approximation of the quantum evolution. These laws describe the shape of the resonance peaks in the mean energy of an experimental ensemble of kicked atoms. Our analytical results match perfectly numerical computations and explain the initially surprising experimental observations. Furthermore, they open the door to the study of the competing effects of decoherence and chaos on the stability of the time evolution of kicked atoms. This stability may be characterised by the overlap of two identical initial states which are subject to different time evolutions. This overlap, called fidelity, is investigated in an experimentally accessible situation.
Chaos and Localisation: Quantum Transport in Periodically Driven Atomic Systems / S. Wimberger - : . , 2004.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2743509
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